6.3.3. Chunking 

“Chunking” in Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) refers to the process of organising or grouping information into larger units or smaller units “chunks”. This is done to make the information more manageable and easier to remember or understand. Chunking is a way to manage complexity and increase cognitive efficiency by reducing the number of individual elements we have to deal with at once.

Here are some important aspects of chunking:

Splits and expands information:

Chunking involves breaking larger amounts of information into smaller, more manageable units or “chunks” (to chunk DOWN). For example, it can be used to clarify a person’s anchors and experiences for use when we use pacing and mirroring/matching, among other things.

Makes it easier to remember:

Chunking makes it easier to remember information by reducing the amount of things we need to remember at once (chunking OP). This can be useful when working with long lists, numbers or complex tasks.

Organising Concepts:

In mind chunking can also be used to organise related concepts or ideas together, making it easier to understand and remember them (chunking OP). For example, information on a topic can be organised into multiple chunks based on theme or relevance.

Reduces Overload:

When information is presented in large chunks, it can lead to information overload. Chunking reduces this overload by breaking the information into smaller chunks (chunking OP).

Increases Manageability:

Chunking increases the manageability of information by allowing us to focus on smaller parts at a time (chunking DOWN). This can help improve both comprehension and memory.

A common example of chunking is when we memorise a phone number by breaking it into smaller units. By applying chunking principles, we can improve our ability to handle and memorise complex information.

6.3.4. META programmes
An important part of the NLP and modelling process is META Programmes, which is a model for understanding individual differences in human thinking and behaviour. New NLP, developed by Henrik Wenøe, Owner and CEO of Acuity World, is a very special development branch of NLP that also works with modelling and META programmes. New NLP was born around the turn of the millennium and has evolved during the 2000s, so that New NLP today contains five key principles that differ from classic NLP: 1) Start with what works. 2) Self-modelling at the ontological level. 3) Follow your Bliss. 4) Teleological design and 5) Chaotic dynamics.

Inspired by Jung’s type classification, Bandler and Grinder found that by listening to the structure of the way people speak, they could decode the underlying thought structures and motivational strategies used by the individual. The meta programmes are therefore not a description of people’s personality, but provide a picture of how people react in different contexts.

META Programmes are patterns in our thinking and behaviour that influence how we perceive and react to the world around us. These patterns can be both conscious and unconscious and play a significant role in our daily lives. By identifying and understanding these patterns, we can increase our self-awareness and achieve better results in our communication and interactions with others.

Over time, hundreds of META programmes have been developed, probably because we humans are unique creatures, just as our heritage, upbringing and the culture we are surrounded by and are part of influence our personality and become a kind of commonality for us.

However, it wouldn’t make sense to use all META programmes. New NLP, which both authors are trained in, is based on 13 selected META programmes in relation to personal leadership and communication. Often only the 8 most important META programmes are used, which we will briefly describe in the next subsection. The 8 most important NLP META programmes
(Extract of text from AW volume 2, chapter 14 on Meta-Programmes + Chat-GPT)

Internal – External Referencing

This meta programme describes where a person gets information about whether something is right or wrong. Do they get the information from within themselves because they can feel it, or do they get the information from outside, for example, someone else telling them whether something is good enough. Internal referrers self-assess their results, check themselves and may find it difficult to accept the judgement of others if they are extremely internal referrers. Difficult to receive feedback. They have their own standards and are motivated by gathering information and comparing it to their own standards and then making judgements. External referrers rely on the opinion and judgement or reaction of others. In extreme cases, the person doesn’t know if the work is done well enough until others have said so. They don’t have their own standards, but get them from the outside world.

Away from – Towards

This metaprogramme basically tells you what motivates a person the most. Is it a focus on what they want to avoid or what they want to achieve. Away-orientated people are problem-orientated. They speak in negations and about what they want to avoid. They are motivated by the “whip across the neck”, by fear of what they want to avoid. Counter-orientated people are goal-oriented; they seek challenges and are motivated by what they want to achieve. They speak in positive terms and what’s possible. They are motivated by the “carrot” and what they can achieve through their values and goals.

Possibility – Procedure

This metaprogramme basically describes that some people are motivated by the options they have in a given situation, while others are motivated by the fact that there is a certain procedure they can follow.

Opportunity-orientated people focus on choices and possibilities in life and work. They are motivated by new opportunities and by developing new procedures. But they don’t necessarily follow them themselves. Structure is not their strong point and they will answer a ‘why’ question succinctly and precisely. Procedure-orientated people focus on routines and procedures. They are motivated by clear guidelines. For them, it’s important that things are done the right way. They are good at following the procedures described in the employee handbook. They are good with order and structure and will answer a “why” question with a “how” answer – describing processes.

Specific – General

This metaprogramme describes that some people are motivated by information that is very detailed, while others are motivated by information that is more general in nature. If a specific-orientated person is given too little information, they will lose motivation, and conversely, you will lose the attention of a general-orientated person if they are given too much and too detailed information. Specifically orientated people are more comfortable with details and small sequences at a time. They may have difficulty abstracting and may struggle with overview and prioritisation. They are good at well-defined tasks with a lot of detail. General-orientated people are best with an overview and large portions of knowledge and information, but they can also go into more detail where necessary. They are good at prioritising, but can struggle to get all the details right.

In Time – Through Time

This metaprogramme describes how a person perceives themselves in relation to time. A person who is In timer is very present in the moment, whereas a person who is Through timer is more focused on what has already happened and what needs to happen. In timers are very here and now orientated, and they don’t think as long-term as a Through timer. They’re immersed in what they’re doing right now, and they’re relaxed about appointments and meeting times. They live life and get something out of it, here and now. They feel tied down by schedules and long-term commitments. They let the task drive instead of the clock and are perceived as spontaneous and impulsive. They are so engaged that time and place are often forgotten and usually intensely present. They are often B people. Through time-orientated people think long-term and are very precise with time. They are good at planning and sensing or seeing how long things will take. They stick to agreements and schedules. They prefer to make the most of their time and the diary is indispensable. They can put their own needs aside as the long-term perspective is in all their considerations. They don’t like being late and are often A-people.

Proactive – Reflective

This metaprogramme says that people who are proactive act before they think and those who are reflexive think before they act. Proactively-orientated people take initiative and act quickly. They make things happen here and now. They are spontaneous and can act without thinking. They speak quickly, without hesitation. They express the ability to influence their life and their surroundings. Reflective-orientated people are deliberative and wait and see. They study things in detail and consider consequences, and some of them can become so reflective that they only act when they are forced to. They speak more hesitantly and slowly. They are good at analysing and considering.

Sort by self – Sort by Others

This metaprogramme shows whether a person does what they think is right and uses their own criteria, or whether they do what others think is right and use others’ criteria. Sort by Self-orientated people make decisions based on their own values and criteria. They do what they think is right and are very opinionated in discussions. Sort by Others-orientated people listen to the opinions of others before making a decision. They ask others what they think and act on and what others think is right. They understand the world according to the criteria by which others see the world.

Match – Mismatch

This metaprogramme tells us whether a person always agrees or disagrees with what they are presented with. There are basically two ways in which we humans process and sort information, which also affects the way we react. In general, both matchers and mismatchers have no idea that the world could be different from what they see, hear and feel. A 100% matcher can’t imagine doing something different tomorrow when it works today. A 100% mismatcher, on the other hand, can’t imagine doing the same thing day in and day out when there’s an opportunity to try new things or do things differently. Match-orientated people tend to wear the same clothes and socks for certain occasions and generally agree with what others think. Mismatch-orientated people will, for example, say black if you say white, and they will automatically and often unconsciously take an opposite position to the information presented to them.